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Models

A model is a person who poses or displays for purposes of art, fashion, or other products and advertising.

Modeling is distinguished from other types of public performance, such as an acting, dancing or mime artistry, although the boundary is not well defined. Appearing in a movie or a play is generally not considered to be modeling, regardless of the nature of the role. However, models generally have to express emotion in their photographs, and many models have also described themselves as actors.

Types of models include glamor, fashion, fitness, bikini, fine-art, and body-part models.

Not all models are beautiful: character models portray ordinary people and humorous types, mostly in print work and in commercials.

Fashion

A fashion model on the runway.

Fashion models are used mainly to promote apparel. Fashion Modeling generally can be divided into two categories (editorial and runway), and into the following sub-categories:

* Ad campaigns
* Fashion catalog modeling
* Fashion catwalk or runway modeling
* Fashion editorial (magazine spreads etc.) modeling
* Fashion print modeling
* Fashion lingerie modeling
* Fashion showroom modeling
* Fashion swimsuit modeling
* Fashion fit modeling
* Fashion fitness modeling
* Petite modeling
* Plus-size modeling

The first true fashion model is generally believed to be Parisian shopgirl, Marie Vernet Worth. She became the first professional mannequin in 1853, to help her fashion designer husband, Charles Frederick Worth.
Body type

The Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34-24-34 in (86-61-86 cm) and at least 5 ft 8 in tall. Currently, the height required to do fashion shows has increased. During the last fashion shows in Europe, the average height was 5 ft 10 in, the average weight was 110 lb, with bust between 33 to 35 in, waist under 24 in, and hips under 35 in, to fit the 34/36 size of body prototypes. Average dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in-6 ft’ 2 in a weight of 140 170 lb and a chest measurement of 93.98 106.68 cm.

The unusually thin shape of fashion models has been criticized for allegedly warping girls’ body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos – also a model – died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third international model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk.

Glamor models

Glamor photography emphasizes the model rather than products, fashion or environment. Typically the sexuality of the model is emphasized in glamor photography, while in fashion photography the emphasis is on the clothes.

Early glamour modeling is often associated with “French postcards”, small postcard sized images that were sold by street vendors in France. In the early 1900s the pinup became popular. Pinups depicted scantily dressed women often in a playful pose seemingly surprised or startled by the viewer. The model would usually have an expression of delight which seemed to invite the viewer to come and play. Betty Grable was one of the most famous pinup models of all time; her pinup in a bathing suit was extremely popular amongst World War II soldiers. In December of 1953 Marilyn Monroe was featured in the first issue of Playboy magazine. Playboy became the first magazine featuring nude glamour photography targeted to the mainstream consumer. Glamor models popular in the early 90s included Hope Talmons and Dita Von Teese and the modern era is represented by models like Heidi Van Horne and Bernie Dexter.

Supermodels

Supermodels like Model Kate Upton are highly paid, top fashion models. These (usually female) celebrities, also known as cover girls, appear on top fashion magazine covers, in catalogs and in fashion shows. The first model to pave the way for what would become the supermodel was Lisa Fonssagrives. The relationship between her image on over 200 Vogue covers and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping future supermodels. Her image appeared on the cover of every fashion magazine during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s from Town & Country, Life and Vogue to the original Vanity Fair. Model Janice Dickinson has asserted that she was the person for whom the term was coined, as she popped the term herself while talking to her agent at the climax of her career by saying, “I’m not superman, I’m a supermodel”.
Fitness models

Fitness modeling centers on displaying an athletic and healthy physique. Fitness models resemble bodybuilders, but with less emphasis on muscle size. Their body weight is usually similar to (or slightly heavier than) fashion models, but they have a lower body fat percentage due to increased muscle mass relative to fat mass. They are usually muscular. The most recognized, by name, fitness models are Sebastian Siegel and Michael O’Hearn.
Bikini models

Bikini models are similar to fitness models with emphasis on a fit physique and the beauty of the female curves. Bikini models are usually curvaceous and fit.

For women models, usually the models can be shorter- more around 5 ft 5 in-5 ft 8 in  and need to be in the range of 90-110 lb.

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model that does not fit into the normal category. Punk, Goth, Fetish, Tattooed, or having a uniqueness outside other model types. These mix with high fashion and art models.
Body part models

Some modeling agencies have divisions which represent male and female models with particularly attractive body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote nail care products, leg models are useful for showcasing tights, and wrist models are used to showcase watches or bracelets. Petite models or females who are under 5 ft 7 in (1.7 m) have found success through body part modeling. An example of a petite body part model is Isobella Jade.
Working conditions

Despite the stereotype of modeling as a glamorous profession, according to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics the median wage for models was only $11.22 per hour in 2006. MarketWatch listed modeling as one of the worst ten jobs in America.

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